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4QPesher Nahum



PESHER NAHUM (4QpNah = 4Q169)
Translation by J. Allegro, from DJD V, 1968; adapted by R.A.Kraft

<col.?, frgs 1-2 [[Nah 1.3-6]], see Garcia Martinez>

<col.1, frgs 3-4>

1/ . . . ] a dwelling for the wicked ones of the gentiles. 

"Wither the lion, the lioness went, the lion's cub [2/ and none to 
terrify" [[Nah 2.11]]. 

Its interpretation concerns Deme]trius, king of Yavan/Greece, who sought 
to enter Jerusalem by the counsel of the Seekers-after-Smooth-Things 
[3/ . . . . . . ] the kings of Yavan/Greece from Antiochus until the 
appearance of the rulers of the Kittim and afterwards she will be trodden 
down [4/ . . . . . . ] 

{blank}"The lion tears sufficient for his cubs, (and) strangles for his 
lionesses prey" [[Nah 2.13]]. [5/ . . . 

Its interpretation] concerns the Lion of Wrath who will smite by his 
nobles and the men of his counsel [6/ . . . 

"And he filled with prey] his cave and his den with torn flesh" 
[[Nah 2.13]]. {blank} 

Its interpretation concerns the Lion of Wrath [7/ . . . 
Ven]geance on the Seekers-of-Smooth-Things when he hangs men up alive 
[8/ . . . ] in Israel beforetime, for of the man hanged alive upon a tree 
it [re]ads: 

"Behold I am against [you] 9/ say[s YHWH of hosts, and I will burn in 
smoke your abundance,] and your young lions the sword shall devour. And 
I will cut [off from the land] his [p]rey. {blank} 10/ And [the voice of 
your messengers] shall no [more be heard" [[Nah 2.14]].] 

Its [interpre]tation: "your abundance" -- they are his warrior bands 
w[ho are in Jerusal]em; and "his young lions" -- they are 11/ his nobles 
[ . . . ] and "his prey"--it is the wealth which the [Prie]sts of 
Jerusalem amas[sed] which 12/ they will give [ . . . E] phraim, Israel 
will be given for [ . . . ] {blank} 

<col.2, frgs 3-4>
1/ and "his messengers" -- they are his envoys whose voice will no longer 
be heard among the nations. 

"Woe city of blood, all full of [lies and rap]ine" [[Nah 3.1]]. 

2/ Its interpretation: it is the city of Ephraim, the Seekers-of-Smooth-
Things at the end of days, who in "lies" and falsehood[s] conduct 

3/ "Prey departs not and the sound of the whip and the sound of the 
rattling of wheels, and galloping horses and bounding chariots, the 
horseman charging, a blade 4/ and flashing spear and a multitude of slain 
and a great heap of carcases: and there is no end to the corpses and they 
shall stumble over their bodies" [[Nah 3.1-3]]. 

Its interpretation concerns the rule of the Seekers-of-Smooth-Things 
5/ when there shall not depart from the midst of their congregation the 
Gentile sword, captivity, and plunder, and heated strife among 
themselves, and exile from fear of the enemy, and a multitude of 
6/ guilty corpses shall fall in their days, and there shall be no end to 
the total of their slain, and furthermore, in their body of flesh they 
shall stumble over their own guilty counsel. 

7/ "Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favoured 
harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that sells nations through her 
whoredom and families through her witchcrafts" [[Nah 3.4]]. {blank}

8/ [Its] interpretation [con]cerns those who lead Ephraim astray, who, 
by their false teaching and their lying tongue and lip of deceit, will 
lead many astray, 9/ kings, princes, priests, and people together with 
the resident alien. Cities and families will perish through their 
counsel, n[ob]les and rul[ers] 10/ will fall because of what they say. 

{blank} "Behold I am against you, says YHWH of hosts, and you shall lift 
up 11/ [your] skirts over your face and show nations your nakedness and 
kingdoms your shame" [[Nah 3.5]]. 

Its interpretation
[. . . 12/ . . .] cities of the east, for the "skirts" [ . . . ]

<col.3, frgs 3-4 [[Nah 3.6-9]], see Garcia Martinez>

<col.4, frgs 3-4 [[Nah 3.10-12]], see Garcia Martinez>

<col.5, frgs 3-4 [[Nah 3.13-14]], see Garcia Martinez>

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